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Published in Scientific Papers. Series B, Horticulture, Vol. LXIV, Issue 1
Written by Georgeta Mihaela BUCUR, Liviu DEJEU

Under the temperate continental climate of Romania, very low temperatures during the winter (below -20ºC) can cause severe damage in several wine regions. The relatively high frequency of the low temperatures in winter allowed the classification of the autochthonous varieties of grapevine by their resistance/tolerance to frost. Thus, the varieties Aromat de Iaşi, Alidor, Ozana, Victoria, Transilvania, Băbească neagră, Cadarcă and Frâncușă are frost sensitive, while Silvania, Crâmpoşie selecţionată, Şarba, Coarnă neagră, Fetească albă are resistant to winter frosts. The relatively high frequency of minimum temperatures harmful to grapevine during the dormant period, makes it necessary to assess the wintering behavior of vineyards. If during the reference period (1961-1990) the frequency of minimum temperatures below -20ºC in the Southern part of Romania (Bucharest) was 16.7%, in the period 1991-2018 it increased significantly to 39.3%. The higher frequency of minimum temperatures harmful to grapevine recorded in the main wine regions of the country (Hills of Moldova, Hills of Walachia and Oltenia, Transylvanian plateau) resulted in a significantly lower total wine production in the years 2005, 2010, 2012, 2015 and 2016. In a long-term experiment carried out on Fetească regală variety, a reduction of the average grape yield by 27-34% was found under the conditions of minimum temperatures of -20 ... -22ºC, in the dormant period. The paper reviews research on the physiological and biochemical aspects, frequency and intensity of winter frosts, the resistance/tolerance of the different varieties as well as factors that influence the resistance to frost of grapevine.

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