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Published in Scientific Papers. Series B. Horticulture., Vol. LVII
Written by Suparman SUPARMAN, Adi PANCORO, Topik HIDAYAT

Genus of Mangifera has 69 species that mostly distributed around Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Malay Peninsula. Phylogenetic study of this genus is conducted in order to investigate the ancestor trait and relationships among those species. Phylogenetic tree is constructed based on nucleotide variation in rbcL gene within 16 samples of Mangifera : 13 species from Indonesia and 3 species from Thailand. Two species from the other genera are added as outgroups. Genomic DNA was extracted using CTAB protocol and amplified with rbcL primers. Sequencing result is analyzed using BLAST function on NCBI. Multiple sequence alignment from all samples of rbcL sequences is generated using Bioedit and ClustalX program. Subsequently phylogenetic is constructed by using Maximum Parsimony method in PAUP* 4.0b10 software. The aligned rbcL comprised 905 characters which had 72 characters of parsimony informative with consistency index (CI) 0,889 and retention index (RI) 0,962. Phylogeny generated four main groups. Group I consist of M. cochinchinensis and M. macrocarpa (Thailand); group II : M. indica M. cesia, M. aplanat and M. altisima ; group III : M. laurina, M. longipes, M. similis, and M. gedebe ; group IV : M. laurina (Thailand), M. foetida, M. caesia, Mangifera spp, and M. odorata. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Mangifera is monophyletic. There is a diversification between M. laurina from Indonesia and Thailand, as well as M. macrocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis also provides information which support the assumption that M. odorata is a hybrid of M. indica and M. foetida, and strongly support the assumption that M. longipes is a synonim of M. laurina.

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