PRINT ISSN 2285-5653, CD-ROM ISSN 2285-5661, ONLINE ISSN 2286-1580, ISSN-L 2285-5653


Published in Scientific Papers. Series B, Horticulture, Volume LIX
Written by Márk STEINER, Lajos MAGYAR, Márta GYEVIKI, Károly HROTKÓ

In high density sweet cherry orchards the crop canopy is fragmented, arranged in linear lanes. In between the treelanes the alleyway provides the space for technology measures and machinery. The area rate of orchard covered bycanopy considerably influences the PAR (photosynthetic active radiation) absorption potential of the orchard. Our firststep in Hungary towards intensification of cherry orchard was the “modified Brunner Spindle” in spacing 6x4 to 5x3m, introduced in the 80-es of last century. The canopy covered rate of the orchard area increased from 0.4-0.5 to 0.6-0.7 with decreasing spacing. The denser “Hungarian Cherry Spindle” with spacing of 4x2m slightly increased the rateof canopy covered orchard area (0.6-0.8) but in this system the leaf and shoot population is more and more crowded ina reduced space. This situation may provide both advantages and disadvantages considering environmental physiologyand technology aspects. The total leaf area of trees and the leaf area index (LAI) is considerably influenced by thecultivar and rootstocks. The LAI and so the PAR absorption capacity of orchard shows typical course during theseason, influenced by the applied pruning too. On dwarfing rootstock GiSelA 5 or 6 the LAI values of trees reach amaximum of 2 to 3, while the LAI of tree on vigorous rootstocks can achieve 7 to 8. At the stage of LAImax the canopywalls of trees intercept 60-90% of PAR, which means 40-75% PAR absorption calculated for the whole orchard area.Environmental factors considerably influence the performance of net CO2 assimilation of leaves in daily and seasonalcourse as well. Our investigation confirmed the role of water supply and temperature of leaves affecting the stomatalconductance. The stomatal conductance of leaves on different rootstocks at appropriate water supply showed dailymaximum in the Tleaf range of 30 – 40 °C, while in the Tleaf range of 40 – 45 °C the conductance rapidly decreased. Thisdown regulation on dwarfing rootstock is faster, while on vigorous rootstocks slower. Since the water supply of leaveson dwarfing rootstocks due to their hydraulic system is more vulnerable, and the exposition of leaves to solar radiationis higher due to the scarse canopy, the leaves get faster into the critical Tleaf range. In contrary trees on vigorousrootstocks with higher LAI, which is linked with higher shading, may show more efficient PAR utilization. The researchwas supported by TÁMOP-4-2.1.B-09/1/KMR- 2010-0005 project and by Hungarian Scientific Research Funds OTKA109361project.

[Read full article] [Citation]

The publisher is not responsible for the opinions published in the Volume. They represent the authors’ point of view.

© 2019 SCIENTIFIC PAPERS. Series B. Horticulture. All Rights Reserved. To be cited: SCIENTIFIC PAPERS. Series B. Horticulture.

Powered by INTELIDEV